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HVAD ER ASHURA

Hvad betyder Ashura og hvilken tragedie skete der på dagen?
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MINDES AF MILLIONER

Omking år 680 e.Kr. blev Imam Hussain, en revolutionær leder fra det 7. århundrede, sammen med sine børn og familiemedlemmer brutalt dræbt på Ashura-dagen. Den 10. dag i den første måned af den islamiske kalender Muharram. (Ashura betyder den tiende på arabisk). Som barnebarn af Profeten Muhammed fandt han sin død i slaget ved ørkenen Karbala i Irak. Yazid en Ummayad kalif som stod bag den brutale henrettelse af Imam Hussain, hans brødre, sønner og andre familiemedlemmer. Imam Hussains ofring og mod har gjort ham til et ikon for eftertiden.

Ashura-dagen markerer dødsdagen for Hussain hvor millioner af mennesker over hele verden mindes Hussains værdige standhaftighed for retfærdighed og hans modstand mod tyranni. Ashura-dagen symboliserer sorgen over hans død og tjener som en påmindelse om vigtigheden af at opretholde principperne om retfærdighed og mod i mødet med undertrykkelse.

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SØRGECEREMONIER AFHOLDES

Imam Hussains tilhængere og beundrere markerer Ashura-sørgetiden med ti dages sørgeceremonier, hvor de mindes tragedien og samtidig fejrer sejren over blodsudgydelse, undertrykkelse og kampen imod uretfærdighed.

Under disse ceremonier reciteres vers fra den hellige Koran, efterfulgt af taler, der belyser Ashuras betydning for vores eget liv. Sørgepoesi opføres med rytmisk bevægelse og tilfører en dyb følelse af sorg og refleksion. Disse begivenheder samler de sørgende om traditionelle Ashura-måltider, der typisk doneres af menigheden eller eksterne velgørere. Det er en tid, hvor fællesskab, åndelig fordybelse og solidaritet blomstrer, mens man mindes Imam Hussains ofring og hans modige kamp mod uretfærdighed.

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HUSSAINS OFRING

Kort efter Muhammeds død faldt det islamiske imperium tilbage til gamle arabiske normer og vaner. Imam Hussain oplevede, hvordan hans bedstefars lære om etik og moral blev ignoreret af den tyranniske kalif Yazid og hans far, Muawiya.

I det muslimske samfund blev den regerende kalif ikke længere valgt ved konsensus (shura) eller udpeget direkte af Profeten. Denne manglende legitimitet fik den unge kalif, Yazid, søn af Muawiya, til at søge legitimitet fra blandt andre profetens barnebarn, Hussain, søn af Ali.

Imam Hussain blev højt respekteret i samfundet på grund af sin oprigtighed, fromhed og ikke mindst for at være profetens barnebarn og søn af Imam Ali.

Imidlertid afviste Hussain Yazids ønske om opbakning til hans illegitime styre og korrupte regering. Hussain var en moralsk mand, der stræbte efter at opretholde social retfærdighed, ligesom hans far, Imam Ali, og hans bedstefar, Profeten Mohammad, der lagde fundamentet for, at folk kunne modtage åbenbaringen og omfavne islam.

 

 

 

Det muslimske samfunds længsel efter retfærdighed og retning fra Muhammed og Ali førte til oprør mod magten. Imam Hussains tilslutning til oprøret mod kalifatstyrets uretfærdighed gav stor legitimitet til folket i Kufa, som sendte utallige breve til ham.

Hussain valgte at tage et ultimativt standpunkt for social retfærdighed og samfundets velbefindende. Han forlod Medina sammen med sin familie og en gruppe af ledsagere. Indbyggerne i Kufa havde inviteret ham til at lede deres oprør mod styret.

Da nyheden nåede Yazid om Imamens støtte til revolutionen imod magten, sendte kaliffen en hær på tredive tusind soldater. Deres mål var at tvinge Hussain til at adlyde Yazids ordrer og afgive sin loyalitet og troskab til kalifatstyret. Yazid vidste, at Imam Hussain havde stor indflydelse, og denne mindre oprør med Hussains familie og ledsagere kunne sprede sig og få tusindvis af retfærdighedssøgende tilhængere over hele imperiet, hvilket ville true Yazids magt og kalifatembede.

Yazid stillede derfor Hussain over for et ultimatum mellem underkastelse eller død. Hussain ønskede dog ikke en voldelig konfrontation og håbede i stedet på at genoprette retfærdighed i den islamiske nation. Imam Hussain vidste, at hans synspunkter ikke ville behage Yazid.

Kalifen Yazid beordrede derfor drabet på Hussain den 10. dag i den første måned af den islamiske kalender, Muharram. Dette var konsekvensen af Hussains afvisning af at underkaste sig tyrannen.

SOCIAL RETFÆRDIGHED

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MASSAKREN AF HUSSAIN OG FAMILIEN

Hussain, hans ledsagere og familie blev tvunget af Yazids soldater til at standse i ørkenen Karbala. Ved daggry på Ashura-dagen var det klart for Hussain og hans mænd, hvad der ventede dem, og de bad deres sidste bønner. På trods af at de vidste, at de skulle dø den dag, forblev Hussains ledsagere ved hans side. Selvom de var klar over, at de ikke kunne sejre mod den tusindtallige hær, bekræftede de deres loyalitet over for profetens barnebarn og var villige til at ofre deres liv for denne sag. De prioriterede deres principper frem for at leve under en korrupt hersker og nægtede at være vidner til undertrykkelse. Imam Hussain stod imod en overvældende fjendtlig hær for at forsvare sandheden og retfærdigheden. På trods af at være omringet af fjender og stå over for umenneskelige lidelser, nægtede han at bøje sig for undertrykkelsen og gav sit liv i kampen for principperne i islam.

Slaget ved Karbala begyndte ved middagstid. Selvom Hussain og hans ledsagere var få i antal, var de frygtindgydende for Yazids hær. Af frygt for interne uroligheder besluttede Yazids general, Omar ibn Saad, at starte krigen. Efter nogle få timer var Hussain den eneste tilbage på slagmarken. Udmattet, tørstig og svært såret gav han ikke op eller opgav sine principper. Uden støtte blev Hussain angrebet fra alle sider af Yazids soldater, indtil han endelig blev dræbt. Hussains kamp forbliver levende i erindringen hos dem, der stræber efter retfærdighed, selv efter 1400 år siden hans martyrium.

Vandet tilbageholdt: Under belejringen af Karbala blev vandet tilbageholdt fra Imam Hussains lejr af fjendens styrker. Imam Hussains børn og familiemedlemmer blev en efter en myrdet og Imam Hussains søn, Ali al-Asghar, en spæd baby, led af tørst. Imam Hussain bad om vand til sin søn, men hans anmodning blev afvist af fjenden. Ali al-Asghar blev tragisk dræbt, da han blev skudt med en pil og døde af tørst.

Imamen og hans troskab: På trods af den uundgåelige skæbne, der ventede ham, blev Imam Hussains loyalitet og troskab mod sin mission tydelig. Han opfordrede sine følgesvende til at forlade ham og redde deres liv, men de valgte at blive hos ham og give deres liv i støtte til hans sag.

Fru Zainabs tale: Efter slaget blev Imam Hussains søster, Fru Zainab, taget til fange og ført til Yazids palads i Damaskus. I paladset holdt hun en kraftfuld tale, hvor hun fordømte Yazids handlinger og afslørede sandheden om Karbala-massakren. Hendes tale rørte folkets hjerter og styrkede kampen for retfærdighed.

Disse fortællinger om Imam Hussain viser hans dedikation, modstandskraft og hengivenhed over for principperne om sandhed og retfærdighed, og de fortsætter med at inspirere og røre ved mennesker i dag.

BRUTALITET SOM ALDRIG SET FØR

Hussains lejr og familiernes telte i Karbala blev sat i brand som en del af ydmygelsen af Hussains afkom og hans ledsagere. Men dette var ikke nok for Yazid, da han beordrede, at Hussains hoved og hovederne af nogle af hans ledsagere skulle bæres til Damaskus, hvor kalifatets palads skulle fejre sejren. Denne lejr, der primært bestod af familiemedlemmer af muslimernes profet, åbnede mange øjne for de ugerninger, Yazid havde begået i kalifatets navn.

Det, der tilfredsstillede Yazid, var at se Hussains familier, kvindelige ledsagere og børn i lænker. Han nød nedbrydelsen, hvilket selv overraskede de største og mest brutale klaner og stammer på den arabiske halvø.

Den brutalitet, som Hussain og hans ledsagere blev udsat for, startede med at blive afskåret fra drikkevand og deres familier. Måden, hvorpå deres lig blev halshugget, og hvordan hestene tramlede over ligene, var en hændelse, som selv de mest brutale arabere på den arabiske halvø ikke havde oplevet eller været vidner til.

Ikke at forglemme Hussains position som profetens barnebarn og efterkommer samt den udpegede Imam for muslimerne.

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FAQ

  • What does Ashura mean?
    Ashura means "tenth" in Arabic and refers to the tenth day of the Islamic month of Muharram. It is a significant day for Muslims, when especially Shia Muslims commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Hussain at the Battle of Karbala. Ashura is associated with mourning, self-reflection and devotion to uphold justice and fight injustice. Read more here
  • Who is Hussain?
    Hussain was a central figure in Islam and was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. He was born in 626 AD. and played a vital role in upholding Islamic teachings and principles. His most famous act was his opposition to tyranny and injustice at the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD, where he and his family were brutally murdered. Imam Hussain symbolizes courage, justice and sacrifice for the cause of faith. His sacrifice is a source of inspiration and a reminder of the importance of standing up against oppression and defending the truth. Hussain also called Imam Hussain was a revolutionary leader. In everyday speech, "imam" is used as a designation for a religious leader, while Imam (including Imam Hussain) designates the divinely appointed successors of the Prophet Muhammad. Imam Hussain was the youngest grandson of Prophet Muhammad and son of Lady Fatima. Hussain was the younger brother of Imam Hassan and elder brother of Mrs. Zainab. There are hundreds of accounts in which the Prophet publicly expresses his love for Hassan and Hussain.
  • Why is Hussain remembered and why is it relevant in the 21st century?
    Shia Muslims in Denmark send a universal message of peace, love and justice. We encourage active participation in creating a better world for everyone and for Muslims and non-Muslims to stand together in a solution-oriented society and create harmony. It is through unity that we can defeat injustice and spread goodness and compassion in our common journey towards a better society for all people, regardless of faith or background. this year we have ta
  • What are the Ashura rituals?
    The rituals of Muharram, the 10 days and nights marking the martyrdom of Hussain, include various practices. Mourning ceremonies are attended, where the tragedy of Karbala is remembered through the recitation of elegies and mourning poetry, speeches and weeping. In addition, there are also charitable acts such as sharing food and drink with others and giving alms to the poor, symbolizing solidarity and compassion for those in need. However, these rituals vary in practice and intensity among different Muslim communities. In the haunts in Denmark, the deceased are remembered through lectures, stories, plays and mourning poetry, and the programs end with the distribution of food. In parts of Nørrebro and Copenhagen, free food and drink are also distributed. There are also traditions that many Shia Muslims go on pilgrimage to Karbala in Iraq. (Karbala is the city where the massacre took place) Followers of several religions and sects see in Imam Hussain's rise and stand a theological and humanitarian connection between calling and action. Therefore, the visit of well-known Christian leaders in particular is not unknown in the Iraqi cityscape during the Ashura mourning ceremonies. Read more about the 10 nights here Read more about the various rituals and traditions here
  • Who started the story of Hussain?
    The story of Imam Hussain begins with his grandfather, the Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad prophesied about the role of his family and said that Imam Hussain would be martyred to uphold justice and fight injustice. After the death of the Prophet, Imam Hussain spread the message of truth and justice in an age characterized by corruption and tyranny. His martyrdom at Karbala was passed down by his sons and successors, (among others Imam Hussain's sister Mrs. Zainab and Imam Hussain's son Al-Sajjad, who relayed the story of Imam Hussain's heroic struggle. Over the years, the story of Imam Hussain has been preserved and shared among Muslims , and it continues to inspire and touch the hearts of people around the world. The stories were also told through generations with mourning gatherings, poetry readings, speeches and processions as well as humanitarian and charity projects.
  • What was the reason for Hussain's rebellion?
    Barely 50 years after the death of Muhammad (the last prophet of Islam), the Muslim empire suffered from corruption under the tyrant and monarchical caliph Yazid of the Ummayad family. The change and distortion of Islam under the then caliph Yazid reached a terrible peak where historical accounts suggest that the caliph openly displayed and exposed oppression and injustice. Hussain had a choice between either supporting the tyrant and living a comfortable and luxurious life, or refusing loyalty and most likely being killed for his decision and stand. Hussain could not live his life as a follower and supporter of tyranny and the choice for him was simple. Hussain refused, saying, "I only want to spread good values and prevent evil". This election Hussain is remembered for by millions of followers worldwide across countries and continents, among both religious, ideological and ethnic groups and individuals. We must learn from this experience and support the community in making a positive difference and change. It involves fighting oppression, promoting justice and creating an inclusive and harmonious society where all citizens can thrive and live in peace and equality.
  • What significance does Hussain have for Muslims?
    Imam Hussain has a deeply significant role for Muslims. He symbolizes courage, justice and sacrifice. His tragic martyrdom at the Battle of Karbala is a source of inspiration and strength for Muslims and non-Muslims worldwide. Imam Hussain represents the struggle against oppression and injustice, and his resistance to tyranny stands as a timeless example of upholding principles and faith, even in difficult situations. Muslims remind each other of his legacy and values as a reminder to stand up against injustice and defend the truth, regardless of the consequences. He is a source of inspiration and a guiding star for the Muslims in their search for justice and peace.
  • Why is there a peace march?
    Peace Procession: Since 1996, a group of less than 50 people have held the annual Ashura procession marking the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. The day Imam Hussain and his followers were murdered in cold blood. It was not just their bodies that were under attack but their stand for righteousness that must not be allowed to exist. Millions of people today remember Imam Hussain's fight against tyranny and injustice. We are gathered here today, on an equal footing with other mourners around the world, dressed in the colors of mourning. Millions across the globe commemorate the loss of Imam Hussain as Shia Muslims, as Muslims and as non-Muslims. Imam Hussain whom millions of people remember, even after 1300 years and still remember, is the revolutionary justice fighter Imam Hussein, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. Imam Hussein fought, among other things, for social justice and for the responsibility of an authority towards its people. Imam Hussein stood against the abuse of power and promoted objective and constructive criticism. In all continents around the world, Hussein's message is remembered annually, where it is relevant to religious as well as non-religious, and without limitation to gender, ethnicity or belief. Imam Hussein's human and humanitarian struggle reminds us to awaken the call to the good in ourselves and our fellow human beings. Hussein reminds us that evil must not be allowed to rule, and that we all have a responsibility to speak out against injustice, regardless of the outcome and regardless of who is in authority. Imam Hussein taught us that we must protect being able to live and think freely, and yet have respect for factual disagreements with our fellow human beings. The Koran: This year we bring our holy book the Koran, to demonstrate our devotion and love for our holy scripture, in a peaceful and positive way. We want to confirm our faith and identity, without resorting to confrontation or provocation. We do not want our social coexistence and unity to be exposed to destruction and unhappiness here in Denmark, simply to make room for the individual unreasonable individuals who are obsessed with scorn, hatred and unreasonable criticism. We want to emphasize Imam Hussain's message that with freedom comes responsibility, and that every prosperity and welfare in a society is maintained by respecting the religious identity of the citizens in a multicultural society, which we in Denmark have become. Each year Imam Hussein's universal message reminds Muslims, as well as non-Muslims, to distance themselves from oppression, tyranny and mockery at all times and in all places. We, as Muslims, also want to pass on this side of Islam by telling about Imam Hussein's beautiful message.
  • What is Arbaeen Peace March - (Hundige -Nørrebro)?
    "Arbaeen fredsmarch" is the name of the annual march which started here in Denmark in 2005 by individual mourners. The wish was to walk a symbolic distance, like the million march that takes place annually in Iraq, in memory of Imam Hussein's family, who were taken hostage after the Karbala tragedy in 680. "Arbaeen Fredsmarch" is on Wednesday 6 September in Zealand. The march stretches approximately 20 kilometers from Hundige to Nørrebro and takes place from 06:30 to approximately 14:00. The course of the route and rest stops are as follows: - 06:30: Hundige st. (start) - 07:00: Ishøj st. - 07:30: Vejlegårdsparken. - 08:30: Strandesplanaden, Brøndby beach. (rest break, Arbaeen peace greeting and food and drink distribution). - 10:30 a.m.: Friheden st. (rest break and food and drink distribution). - 11:30 a.m.: Valby st. - 12:30 / 14:00: Nørrebro st. (final destination). Arbaeen / 40th Day: Around the world, several million Shia Muslims and freedom lovers mark the Arbaeen event year after year by walking a symbolic distance to commemorate this tragedy. On par with the pilgrimage to Mecca, the Arbaeen peace march has become one of the biggest Muslim holidays ever. Where both Shia, Sunni, Christians and non-Muslims visit Imam Hussain in Karbala in Iraq. A crowd of growing 20 million visitors at this international event cannot be overlooked or underestimated, especially in times when the SoMe movement and the media in general make it easier for followers to explore all the world's geographies, cultures and nations. The visitors gather in these huge numbers to empathize with and recall the horrors and horrors the captives among the Prophet's family and children have been through. This remembrance of humiliation and inhumane treatment reminds all societies of their role in enjoining the good and forbidding the evil which can also be manifested in a symbolic footing.
  • What does Arbaeen mean?
    Arbaeen is an important religious event within the Muslim world, marking the 40-day mourning period following the martyrdom of Imam Hussain at the Battle of Karbala. It is a time when millions of Muslims, regardless of nationality or background, gather in Iraq to take part in a pilgrimage to Hussainiyah, the tomb of Imam Hussain. Arbaeen is the world's largest annual human gathering that symbolizes unity, solidarity and tribute to Imam Hussain and his sacrifices. During this event, important values such as mercy, compassion and love are practiced in an impressive display of devotion and faith. The collection point is Iraq's various cities; primarily Najaf or Baghdad and the destination is the city of Karbala where the Ashura incident took place. The grave site of Imam Hussain and Abbas can be found in the center of Karbala. Up to 20 million people gather for Arbaeen (the 40th day) after the Ashura tragedy to mark the mourning ceremony. The visitors from all corners of the world show their compassion and support for the Prophet's family by walking long distances of up to 90 kilometers spread over a few days with Karbala in sight. On par with the pilgrimage to Mecca, the Arbaeen peace march has become one of the biggest Muslim holidays ever. The visitors proudly raise their country's flag and flaunt their national identity in order to illuminate the obvious love for the Prophet's family. They show their loyalty to the Prophet by mourning and remembering the prisoners of Karbala, their journey and sufferings from the then destination from Kufa to Damascus. Read more about Arbaeen here
  • Where can I read more about Hussain?
    1. Read more about Hussain here
  • Quotes by Hussain
    Here are some quotes from Imam Hussain: ​ 1. "Death with dignity is better than life in humiliation."2. "I prefer to die with honor than to live under oppression."3. "If you don't believe in anything, you will fall for everything."4. "No one fights for God without experiencing victory."5. "The goal is not to live long, but to live meaningfully."6. "True heroes don't die, they always live on in the hearts of those they touched."7. "Stick to the truth is not always easy, but it is always the right thing."8. "Do good deeds even if you are surrounded by evil.
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