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CITATER
Ashura hændelsen inspirerer mange; muslimer såvel som ikke-muslimer. Det sagde de om Hussain.

Jeg er mere end nogensinde overbevist om, at det ikke var sværdet der vandt et sted for islam i disse dage. Det var den bestemte enkelhed og Hussains fuldstændige ego-udslettelse. Den omhyggelige respekt for løfter, og hans intense hengivenhed over for sine venner og tilhængere samt hans frygtløshed. Det var Hussains absolutte tillid til Gud og til hans egen mission og ikke sværdet der bar alt foran sig og overgik enhver hindring.

Mahatma Gandi, Indisk frihedskæmper (1869-1948)

En af de mange frihedskæmpere, der blev inspireret af Imam Hussains tragedie var Indiens Mahatma Ghandi. Han valgte samme fremgangsmåde i sin kamp mod den Britiske kolonimagt. Han havde et ønske om fredelig protest imod uretfærdigheden.

Kampen for social retfærdighed og værdighed var nogle af de værdier, der gav Ghandi en større forståelse for den fredelige modstand. Til trods for Storbritaniens kæmpe empirium og uendelige ressourcer, hvilket ikke var mindre end Hussains daværende forhold baseret på Yazids Umayyade Kalifat og dets geografiske rådighed.

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Edward Granville Browne, Britisk orientalist (1862-1926)

Som professor i arabisk og orientalske studier ved University of Cambridge publiserede Edward Browne adskillige artikler og bøger. Han publiserede primært indenfor historie og litteratur. Browne skrev indenfor områder, som få vestlige lærde havde undersøgt og mange af hans publiseringer relaterede til Iran. De relaterede enten til iransk historie eller indenfor persisk litteratur.

 

Han er muligvis bedst kendt for hans dokumentation og historiske narrativer.

  • What does Ashura mean?
    Ashura means "tenth" in Arabic and refers to the tenth day of the Islamic month of Muharram. It is a significant day for Muslims, when especially Shia Muslims commemorate the martyrdom of Imam Hussain at the Battle of Karbala. Ashura is associated with mourning, self-reflection and devotion to uphold justice and fight injustice. Read more here
  • Who is Hussain?
    Hussain was a central figure in Islam and was the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. He was born in 626 AD. and played a vital role in upholding Islamic teachings and principles. His most famous act was his opposition to tyranny and injustice at the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD, where he and his family were brutally murdered. Imam Hussain symbolizes courage, justice and sacrifice for the cause of faith. His sacrifice is a source of inspiration and a reminder of the importance of standing up against oppression and defending the truth. Hussain also called Imam Hussain was a revolutionary leader. In everyday speech, "imam" is used as a designation for a religious leader, while Imam (including Imam Hussain) designates the divinely appointed successors of the Prophet Muhammad. Imam Hussain was the youngest grandson of Prophet Muhammad and son of Lady Fatima. Hussain was the younger brother of Imam Hassan and elder brother of Mrs. Zainab. There are hundreds of accounts in which the Prophet publicly expresses his love for Hassan and Hussain.
  • Why is Hussain remembered and why is it relevant in the 21st century?
    Shia Muslims in Denmark send a universal message of peace, love and justice. We encourage active participation in creating a better world for everyone and for Muslims and non-Muslims to stand together in a solution-oriented society and create harmony. It is through unity that we can defeat injustice and spread goodness and compassion in our common journey towards a better society for all people, regardless of faith or background. this year we have ta
  • What are the Ashura rituals?
    The rituals of Muharram, the 10 days and nights marking the martyrdom of Hussain, include various practices. Mourning ceremonies are attended, where the tragedy of Karbala is remembered through the recitation of elegies and mourning poetry, speeches and weeping. In addition, there are also charitable acts such as sharing food and drink with others and giving alms to the poor, symbolizing solidarity and compassion for those in need. However, these rituals vary in practice and intensity among different Muslim communities. In the haunts in Denmark, the deceased are remembered through lectures, stories, plays and mourning poetry, and the programs end with the distribution of food. In parts of Nørrebro and Copenhagen, free food and drink are also distributed. There are also traditions that many Shia Muslims go on pilgrimage to Karbala in Iraq. (Karbala is the city where the massacre took place) Followers of several religions and sects see in Imam Hussain's rise and stand a theological and humanitarian connection between calling and action. Therefore, the visit of well-known Christian leaders in particular is not unknown in the Iraqi cityscape during the Ashura mourning ceremonies. Read more about the 10 nights here Read more about the various rituals and traditions here
  • Who started the story of Hussain?
    The story of Imam Hussain begins with his grandfather, the Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad prophesied about the role of his family and said that Imam Hussain would be martyred to uphold justice and fight injustice. After the death of the Prophet, Imam Hussain spread the message of truth and justice in an age characterized by corruption and tyranny. His martyrdom at Karbala was passed down by his sons and successors, (among others Imam Hussain's sister Mrs. Zainab and Imam Hussain's son Al-Sajjad, who relayed the story of Imam Hussain's heroic struggle. Over the years, the story of Imam Hussain has been preserved and shared among Muslims , and it continues to inspire and touch the hearts of people around the world. The stories were also told through generations with mourning gatherings, poetry readings, speeches and processions as well as humanitarian and charity projects.
  • What was the reason for Hussain's rebellion?
    Barely 50 years after the death of Muhammad (the last prophet of Islam), the Muslim empire suffered from corruption under the tyrant and monarchical caliph Yazid of the Ummayad family. The change and distortion of Islam under the then caliph Yazid reached a terrible peak where historical accounts suggest that the caliph openly displayed and exposed oppression and injustice. Hussain had a choice between either supporting the tyrant and living a comfortable and luxurious life, or refusing loyalty and most likely being killed for his decision and stand. Hussain could not live his life as a follower and supporter of tyranny and the choice for him was simple. Hussain refused, saying, "I only want to spread good values and prevent evil". This election Hussain is remembered for by millions of followers worldwide across countries and continents, among both religious, ideological and ethnic groups and individuals. We must learn from this experience and support the community in making a positive difference and change. It involves fighting oppression, promoting justice and creating an inclusive and harmonious society where all citizens can thrive and live in peace and equality.
  • What significance does Hussain have for Muslims?
    Imam Hussain has a deeply significant role for Muslims. He symbolizes courage, justice and sacrifice. His tragic martyrdom at the Battle of Karbala is a source of inspiration and strength for Muslims and non-Muslims worldwide. Imam Hussain represents the struggle against oppression and injustice, and his resistance to tyranny stands as a timeless example of upholding principles and faith, even in difficult situations. Muslims remind each other of his legacy and values as a reminder to stand up against injustice and defend the truth, regardless of the consequences. He is a source of inspiration and a guiding star for the Muslims in their search for justice and peace.
  • Why is there a peace march?
    Peace Procession: Since 1996, a group of less than 50 people have held the annual Ashura procession marking the 10th day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar. The day Imam Hussain and his followers were murdered in cold blood. It was not just their bodies that were under attack but their stand for righteousness that must not be allowed to exist. Millions of people today remember Imam Hussain's fight against tyranny and injustice. We are gathered here today, on an equal footing with other mourners around the world, dressed in the colors of mourning. Millions across the globe commemorate the loss of Imam Hussain as Shia Muslims, as Muslims and as non-Muslims. Imam Hussain whom millions of people remember, even after 1300 years and still remember, is the revolutionary justice fighter Imam Hussein, the grandson of the Prophet Muhammad. Imam Hussein fought, among other things, for social justice and for the responsibility of an authority towards its people. Imam Hussein stood against the abuse of power and promoted objective and constructive criticism. In all continents around the world, Hussein's message is remembered annually, where it is relevant to religious as well as non-religious, and without limitation to gender, ethnicity or belief. Imam Hussein's human and humanitarian struggle reminds us to awaken the call to the good in ourselves and our fellow human beings. Hussein reminds us that evil must not be allowed to rule, and that we all have a responsibility to speak out against injustice, regardless of the outcome and regardless of who is in authority. Imam Hussein taught us that we must protect being able to live and think freely, and yet have respect for factual disagreements with our fellow human beings. The Koran: This year we bring our holy book the Koran, to demonstrate our devotion and love for our holy scripture, in a peaceful and positive way. We want to confirm our faith and identity, without resorting to confrontation or provocation. We do not want our social coexistence and unity to be exposed to destruction and unhappiness here in Denmark, simply to make room for the individual unreasonable individuals who are obsessed with scorn, hatred and unreasonable criticism. We want to emphasize Imam Hussain's message that with freedom comes responsibility, and that every prosperity and welfare in a society is maintained by respecting the religious identity of the citizens in a multicultural society, which we in Denmark have become. Each year Imam Hussein's universal message reminds Muslims, as well as non-Muslims, to distance themselves from oppression, tyranny and mockery at all times and in all places. We, as Muslims, also want to pass on this side of Islam by telling about Imam Hussein's beautiful message.
  • What is Arbaeen Peace March - (Hundige -Nørrebro)?
    "Arbaeen fredsmarch" is the name of the annual march which started here in Denmark in 2005 by individual mourners. The wish was to walk a symbolic distance, like the million march that takes place annually in Iraq, in memory of Imam Hussein's family, who were taken hostage after the Karbala tragedy in 680. "Arbaeen Fredsmarch" is on Wednesday 6 September in Zealand. The march stretches approximately 20 kilometers from Hundige to Nørrebro and takes place from 06:30 to approximately 14:00. The course of the route and rest stops are as follows: - 06:30: Hundige st. (start) - 07:00: Ishøj st. - 07:30: Vejlegårdsparken. - 08:30: Strandesplanaden, Brøndby beach. (rest break, Arbaeen peace greeting and food and drink distribution). - 10:30 a.m.: Friheden st. (rest break and food and drink distribution). - 11:30 a.m.: Valby st. - 12:30 / 14:00: Nørrebro st. (final destination). Arbaeen / 40th Day: Around the world, several million Shia Muslims and freedom lovers mark the Arbaeen event year after year by walking a symbolic distance to commemorate this tragedy. On par with the pilgrimage to Mecca, the Arbaeen peace march has become one of the biggest Muslim holidays ever. Where both Shia, Sunni, Christians and non-Muslims visit Imam Hussain in Karbala in Iraq. A crowd of growing 20 million visitors at this international event cannot be overlooked or underestimated, especially in times when the SoMe movement and the media in general make it easier for followers to explore all the world's geographies, cultures and nations. The visitors gather in these huge numbers to empathize with and recall the horrors and horrors the captives among the Prophet's family and children have been through. This remembrance of humiliation and inhumane treatment reminds all societies of their role in enjoining the good and forbidding the evil which can also be manifested in a symbolic footing.
  • What does Arbaeen mean?
    Arbaeen is an important religious event within the Muslim world, marking the 40-day mourning period following the martyrdom of Imam Hussain at the Battle of Karbala. It is a time when millions of Muslims, regardless of nationality or background, gather in Iraq to take part in a pilgrimage to Hussainiyah, the tomb of Imam Hussain. Arbaeen is the world's largest annual human gathering that symbolizes unity, solidarity and tribute to Imam Hussain and his sacrifices. During this event, important values such as mercy, compassion and love are practiced in an impressive display of devotion and faith. The collection point is Iraq's various cities; primarily Najaf or Baghdad and the destination is the city of Karbala where the Ashura incident took place. The grave site of Imam Hussain and Abbas can be found in the center of Karbala. Up to 20 million people gather for Arbaeen (the 40th day) after the Ashura tragedy to mark the mourning ceremony. The visitors from all corners of the world show their compassion and support for the Prophet's family by walking long distances of up to 90 kilometers spread over a few days with Karbala in sight. On par with the pilgrimage to Mecca, the Arbaeen peace march has become one of the biggest Muslim holidays ever. The visitors proudly raise their country's flag and flaunt their national identity in order to illuminate the obvious love for the Prophet's family. They show their loyalty to the Prophet by mourning and remembering the prisoners of Karbala, their journey and sufferings from the then destination from Kufa to Damascus. Read more about Arbaeen here
  • Where can I read more about Hussain?
    1. Read more about Hussain here
  • Quotes by Hussain
    Here are some quotes from Imam Hussain: ​ 1. "Death with dignity is better than life in humiliation."2. "I prefer to die with honor than to live under oppression."3. "If you don't believe in anything, you will fall for everything."4. "No one fights for God without experiencing victory."5. "The goal is not to live long, but to live meaningfully."6. "True heroes don't die, they always live on in the hearts of those they touched."7. "Stick to the truth is not always easy, but it is always the right thing."8. "Do good deeds even if you are surrounded by evil.

Nicholson var uddannet ved Aberdeen University og ved University of Cambridge. Han var lektor i persisk fra 1902–1926 og professor i arabisk 1926–1933 ved Cambridge.

 

Han var en førende forsker indenfor islamisk litteratur og mystik. Hans arabiske litteraturhistorie fra 1907 forbliver et standardværk om dette emne på engelsk; mens hans mange tekstudgaver og oversættelser af Ṣūfī-skrifter, der kulminerede i hans otte bind Mathnawi af Jalalu’ddin Rumi (1925–40), fremmede i høj grad studiet af muslimske mystikere.

 

Nogle af hans versioner af arabisk og persisk poesi giver ham ret til at blive betragtet som en digter i sig selv. Hans dybe forståelse af islam og de muslimske folk var den mest bemærkelsesværdige, idet han aldrig rejste uden for Europa. Til trods for værende genert, viste han sig at være en inspirerende lærer og en original tænker.

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Født i Skotland tjente Muir og ældre bror begge med den indiske embedsmand og blev introduceret til orientalske sprog som en del af deres træning.

 

Mens John specialiserede sig i sanskrit og hinduisme, koncentrerede William sig om arabiske og islamiske studier. Begge gavner deres læring med fordel som undervisere og tilhængere af kristen mission i Indien. William Muirs indlæg omfattede efterretning i Agra Allahabad og guvernørskabet for de nordvestlige provinser (1868-1874). I løbet af sine år i Indien blev han venner med CMS-missionæren Karl Pfander (1803-1865), der opmuntrede ham til at foretage sit første store stykke akademisk skrivning, The Life of Mahomet (4 bind., 1858-1865).

 

Efter pensionering fra politisk tjeneste vendte begge Muirs tilbage til Edinburgh, hvor de fortsatte deres engagement i orientalske studier og sammenlignende religion på universitetet. Som Edinburgh University (1857), som uddannelsesmæssig udvikling i princippet, producerede William Muir yderligere værker om Koranen og islamisk historie og skrev adskillige undersøgelser af kristen-muslimsk møde, der afspejler hans sympati med den kontroversielle undskyldning fra Pfander og andre.

Charles Dickens, victoriansk forfatter (1812-1870)

Charles John Huffam Dickens en engelskvictoriansk forfatter og samfundskritiker, født i Landport ved Portsmouth. I 1814 flyttede familien til London og senere til Chatham. Han fik ikke megen formel skolegang, men lærte meget på Londons gader, der kom til at spille en stor rolle i hans romaner.

 

Dickens ville være journalist, og som 22-årig blev han ansat på en londonavis. I udlandet skrev han romaner som David Copperfield (1850), To byer (1859) og Store forventninger (1861). Han brugte sin store popularitet til at angribe domstole og kostskoler, som udnyttede de fattige. Han døde i 1870 i London.

I løbet af hans levetid nød hans værker en hidtil uset popularitet. Han betragtes nu som et litterært geni, fordi han skabte nogle af verdens bedst kendte fiktive figurer og betragtes som den største romanforfatter i den victorianske æra.

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Imam Hussains revolution er en af de unikke revolutioner i historien der ikke er blevet set magen til, hvad enten det drejer sig om religiøse kald eller politiske revolutioner. Umayyade-staten varede ikke længe, og ikke engang i et normalt menneskes levetid. Perioden mellem Hussains revolutionen og Umayyadernes fald var ikke mere end tres år eller lidt mere.

Abbas Mahmud al Aqqad, egyptisk journalist (1889-1964)

Født den 28. juni 1889 i Aswān i Egypten var Abbās Maḥmūd al-Aqqād en egyptisk journalist, digter og litteraturkritiker, der var en innovatør af arabisk poesi og kritiker fra det 20. århundrede.

Født under beskedne omstændigheder fortsatte al-ʿAqqād sin uddannelse gennem læsning, da hans formelle skolegang blev afbrudt. Han støttede sig selv gennem det meste af sin karriere ved at skrive. En åbenlyst politisk kommentator, han blev fængslet i nogle måneder i 1930–31 for bemærkninger, der var imod regeringen. I 1942, med fremskridt af tyske tropper, søgte al-ʿAqqād tilflugt i Sudan som en forholdsregel mod tyske repressalier for hans kritik af Adolf Hitler.

 

Al-ʿAqqads litterære værker omfattede digte; en roman, Sarāh (1938), baseret på en af hans egne romancer og kritik af klassiske og moderne arabiske forfattere. Hans essays viser indflydelsen fra engelske 19. århundrede, især Thomas Carlyle.

Ingen kamp i menneskehedens moderne og tidligere historie har tjent mere sympati og beundring samt givet flere lektioner end Hussains martyrium i slaget ved Karbala.

Antoine Bara, Libanesisk kristen forfatter (1943- )

Det er ordene fra den kristne forfatter Antoine Bara, hvis bog "Hussain in Christian Ideology" havde fremkaldt både ros og provokation efter offentliggørelsen. Især hans bemærkninger, som Jesus Kristus havde forudsagt om Imam Hussains udseende, havde kastet en bombe i den kristne verden, og Bara havde måtte forsvare sin påstand.

Han beskriver Imam Hossein med "den levende og vågne samvittighed fra alle religioner for altid". Efter hans opfattelse er Imam Hosseins liv mest sammenlignelig med profeten Jesus. Bara mener, at Ashuras sorgceremonier og ritualer holder begivenheden levende i folks sind.

Imam Husseins rolle og vovede at sige, at muslimerne ikke kendte Husseins værd og vigtighed til ikke at have lært nok af ham og om ham.

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I stedet for, i takt med tendenser i Mellemøsten, Sydasien og Vesten, er bloddonationskampagner blevet mere populære. Ideen er at støtte Imam Husayns kamp for retfærdighed ved at dele ens blod for en humanitær sag. Mens kampagner i Storbritannien er blevet koordineret siden 1987, har bloddonationskampagnen i Norge været stigende i de sidste ti år.

Ingvild Flaskerud, Professor i teologi (1962-)

Manglende studier indenfor Shia-islam for lidt over 20 år siden, tiltrak den Norske studerendes interesse på daværende tid.

Hendes forskning af feltet indenfor teologi led til en post-doktorgrad i adskillige prominente universiteter, herunder University of Oslo, Université de Tromsø og Universitetet i Bergen.

 

Nogle af hendes kendte værker er bl.a.; "Mediating Pilgrimage in Europe: Pilgrimage remembered and desired in a Norwegian home-community", "Ritual creativity and plurality: Denying Twelver Shia blood-let practices", "Visualizing Belief and Piety in Iranian Shiism" og "Gender, Religion and Change in the Middle East".

"Modellen for social retfærdighed, eksemplet for kampen, er noget vi kan finde i alle trosretninger, men der er en vidunderlig illustration i islam".

Edward Kessler, Britisk tænker og akademiker (1963 - )

Edward Kessler er en ledende tænker i tvær-religiøse relationer, primært indenfor jødiske-kristne-muslimske relationer, og er Fellow i St Edmund's College, Cambridge, såvel som rektor for Cambridge Theological Federation.

Dr. Edward Kessler er en af grundlæggerne af The Woolf Institute sammen med præst Martin Forward i 1998. Deres mål var at skabe en akademisk ramme og et rum, hvor folk kunne tackle spørgsmål om religiøs forskel konstruktivt.


Begyndende som Center for jødisk-kristne relationer, udvidede instituttet senere til at omfatte Center for Study of Muslim-Jewish Relations - det første og eneste center i Europa dedikeret til at fremme en bedre forståelse af forholdet mellem muslimer og jøder. Senere blev centret til et center for politik og offentlig uddannelse. I 2010 blev disse centre slået sammen under betegnelsen "Woolf Institute" til ære for Harry, Lord Woolf, tidligere Lord Chief Justice of England og Wales.

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Uden for de islamiske traditioner er der meget lidt kendskab til ham. Her er en eksempel på en åndelig leder, religiøs leder, politisk leder, som jeg faktisk tror kunne tale meget bredere til verdenen. Det ville være rart at inkludere Hussain i den slags panteon af religiøse storheder som folk ofte taler om; Moses, Jesus, Buddha, Moder Teresa, Martin Luther King. Disse navne som folk regelmæssigt kender.

Joshua J. Ralston, Professor i teologi (1969-)

Dr. Joshua Ralston underviser indenfor kristne-muslimske relationer på School of Divinity på University of Edinburgh og er direktør og medstifter af Christian-Muslim Studies Network finansieret af Henry Luce Foundation.

 

Før han flyttede til Skotland, var han lektor i teologi ved Union Presbyterian Seminary i Richmond i Virginia. Han fik sin bachelorgrad i filosofi ved Wake Forest University, inden han studerede verdenskristendom i Edinburgh, guddommelighed ved Candler School of Theology og kristen teologi og islamisk tanke ved Emory University.

Han har publiceret bredt om reformeret teologi, kristen teologisk engagement med islam, arabisk kristendom og om politisk teologi. Hans monografi, "Law and the Rule of God: A Christian Engagement with Shari'a" blev offentliggjort af Cambridge University Press (2020), og han har redigeret to bøger, "Church in a Age of Global Migration: A Moving Body (Palgrave, 2015)" og "religiøs mangfoldighed i Europa: sammenlignende politisk teologi" (Ferdinand Schöning, 2020).

Han arbejder i øjeblikket på en monografi: "Witness and the Word: En Approach to Christian-Muslim Dialogue".

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